Summary of response variables for each petroleum product treatment concentrationa

  • a Petroleum hydrocarbon analysis for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis can be found in Table S1 in the supplemental material. Light gray shading and X denote no significant difference; dark gray shading and a check mark (✓) denote a significant difference relative to levels in the control samples of the corresponding treatment (P < 0.05). ND, not done; ≠, gene expression change observed at 2 h, with no samples remaining to test at 24 h.

  • b Nominal concentration.

  • c Survival and metamorphosis were scored after 48 h (mean ± standard error).

  • d Concentrations of 13, 25, 50, 75, and 100%.