TABLE 1

Strains and plasmids used in this studya

Strain or plasmidGenotype and/or descriptionReference or source
Strains
    Y. pestis CO92Wild type (pCD1 positive; fully virulent)93
    Y. pestis KIM6+ wtWild type (pCD1 negative; avirulent)94
    Y. pestis KIM6 wtWild type (pCD1 negative; Pgm negative [hmsHFRS negative]; biofilm negative)94
    Y. pestis KIM6+ ΔhmsHPgm negative; biofilm negativeThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ ΔddhB-gmdDeleted of the ddhB-gmd region (y1069–y1079) of the O-antigen operonThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ ddhD-gmd-pstbPseudogenized O-antigen locus replaced by functional locus of Y. pseudotuberculosis; makes smooth form of LPSThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ PDE4-pstbKIM6+ (pCR::YPTB3828); addition of phosphodiesterase gene on high-copy-number plasmidThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ (plsrR-pstb)KIM6+ (pCR::lsrR-pstb); addition of functional LsrR repressor (YPTB0553)This study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ ΔnhaC locusKIM6+ deleted of YPTB3427–3432 homologsThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ ΔT6SST6SS locus 4 (y3657–y3677) deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ ΔhcpT6SS locus 4 hcp gene (y3673) deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pestis KIM6+ Δy3677T6SS locus 4 y3673 gene (YPTB0639 homolog) deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPwtIP32953 wild type95
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPIP32953 transformed with pCH16 (ymt on plasmid)12
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmtIP32953 rcsA-pe PDE2-pe PDE3-pe (pCH16) (IP with native rcsA, PDE2, and PDE3 genes replaced by Y. pestis nonfunctional alleles)12
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 SY406IPmt deleted of ddhB-gmd genes (O-antigen-negative mutant)15; this study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 SY381IP32953 rcsA-pe PDE2-pe PDE3-peYPTB1709-pe, ΔddhB gmd flhD-pe ΔchiC nghA-pe barA-pe ΔYPTB2490–2497 ΔYPTB0556–0562 ΔYPTB0871-0880 ΔYPTB1894-1891::ymt12; this study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔhmsHIPmt Pgm negativeThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔPDE4IPmt deleted of phospodiesterase gene YPTB3828This study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IP ΔT6SST6SS locus 4 (YPTB0639–YPTB0657) deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IP ΔYPTB0639T6SS locus 4 gene YPTB0639 deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔT6SSIPmt T6SS locus 4 (YPTB0639-0657) deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔhcpHcp gene of T6SS locus 4 (YPTB0463) deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔYPTB0639T6SS locus 4 gene YPTB0639 deleted and replaced with a Km resistance geneThis study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔureDSY458 ΔYPTB1894-1891::ymt ΔureD (ymt inserted into chromosome, urease-negative)12, 14; this study
    Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 IPmt ΔpsaApsaA deleted from IPmt ΔureDThis study
    E. coli S17-1 λ-pirRP4 2-Tc::Mu-Km::Tn7 pro thi recA HsdR M+ λpir96
    E. coli TOP10Invitrogen
Plasmids
    pCH16Y. pestis ymt gene (Y1069) cloned in pACYC17713
    pCR2.1-TOPOHigh-copy-number cloning vectorInvitrogen
    pCVD442Suicide vector, Apr86
    pDS132Suicide vector, Cmr97
    pKD4Mutagenesis; Apr, Kmr88
    pCP20Flp recombinase gene, Apr, Cmr98
    pCR::lsrR-pstbY. pseudotuberculosis lsrR gene (YPTB0553) cloned in pCR2.1This study
    pCR::YPTB3828Y. pseudotuberculosis PDE4 gene (YPTB3828) cloned in pCR2.1This study
    pWKS130Low-copy-number cloning vector99
  • a -pe, Y. pestis allele; -pstb, Y. pseudotuberculosis allele; Ap, ampicillin; Km, kanamycin; Cm, chloramphenicol.