TABLE 1

Antibiotics used in C. difficile murine infection models

AntibioticClassTargetActivityAdministrationDosage
CefoperazoneCephalosporin (third generation)Primarily Gram-positive bacteria, with increased activity against Gram-negative bacteriaIrreversible cross-linking of bacterial transpeptidases to peptidoglycan and prevention of cell wall synthesisDrinking water ad libitum for 5 days and 2 days of untreated drinking water prior to infection0.5 mg/ml drinking water
StreptomycinAminoglycosideActive against most Gram-negative aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacilliProtein synthesis inhibition through binding the 30S portion of the 70S ribosomal subunitDrinking water ad libitum for 5 days and 2 days of untreated drinking water prior to infection5.0 mg/ml drinking water
ClindamycinLincosamidePrimarily active against Gram-positive bacteria, most anaerobic bacteria, and some mycoplasmasProtein synthesis inhibition through binding to the 23S portion of the 50S ribosomal subunitIntraperitoneal injection 24 h prior to infection10 mg/kg body weight